Fate of Listeria on Various Surfaces When Treated with Bacteriophage
The study objective was to determine efficacy of a bacteriophage suspension against Listeria spp. when applied to three common types of materials used in food manufacturing facilities: two food contact materials (stainless steel and polyurethane thermoplastic belting) and one noncontact material (epoxy flooring). Coupons of each material were inoculated with a cocktail containing L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. Treated samples were held at 4°C or 20°C for one and three hours to determine the effect of temperature and treatment time. Higher phage concentration, longer treatment time, and a processing area temperature of 20°C showed a greater reduction of Listeria on the stainless‐steel and polyurethane thermoplastic belting coupons. Journal of Food Safety. 2020;40:e12775.
Colorants in Cheese Manufacturing
Colored cheddar cheeses are prepared by adding an aqueous annatto extract (norbixin) to cheese milk; however, a considerable proportion of such colorant is transferred to whey, which can limit the end use applications of whey products. Different geographical regions have adopted various strategies for handling whey derived from colored cheeses production. For example, in the U.S., whey products are treated with oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide to obtain white and colorless spray‐dried products; however, chemical bleaching of whey is prohibited in Europe and China. This review provides a critical analysis of pertinent scientific and patent literature pertaining to colorant delivery in cheese and various types of colorant products on the market for cheese manufacturing and considers interactions between colorant molecules and cheese components; various strategies for the elimination of color transfer to whey during cheese manufacturing are also discussed. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2020;19:1220-1242.
Inhomogeneous Salt Distribution in Beef Frankfurters
Inhomogeneous salt distribution is a promising strategy for salt reduction. This study investigated the effect of inhomogeneous salt distribution using a salt edible coating on the physiochemical and sensory attributes of beef frankfurter sausages. The results demonstrated that this method significantly reduced the salt content in frankfurter sausages by 60 to 81 percent without affecting consumer perception of saltiness intensity. Among the coated samples, 7.5 percent and 10 percent salt coating samples showed the best performance on the product quality. However, the problems associated with high cooking loss and hard texture of the salt‐coated sausages need to be further addressed. This research has potentially developed a new method for manufacture of salt‐reduced food. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2020;55:2911-2919.
Effects of Different Freezing Methods on the Quality of Conditioned Beef Steaks
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of three freezing methods (refrigerator, immersion, and plate freezing) on the qualities of conditioned beef steaks during storage. Results showed that the freezing rate of immersion freezing was highest in three groups. The thawing loss, juice loss, and thiobarbituric acid reactants values of conditioned steaks in immersion freezing groups were lowest during frozen storage. It was also found that samples in the immersion freezing group had the most compact structures of muscle fibers. From the aspect of the texture of the steaks, the immersion freezing group is superior to the plate freezing and refrigerator freezing groups in terms of hardness and elasticity. In consideration of product quality, these results suggest that immersion freezing is the optimal way to freeze conditioned steaks. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. 2020;44:e14496.