An Overview of Craft Beer
This article details issues concerning the history and legal definition, market, fiscal policy, innovation, safety, healthiness, consumer profile, and sustainability of craft beer. The term “craft brewery” generally refers to a brewery able to produce low volumes of beer, often made with traditional ingredients, but also with the addition of nontraditional ingredients as a distinctive sign of the master brewer. In many countries, the importance of the company size is related to the opportunity to take advantage of reduced excise rates for low production volumes. In several countries, another important requisite of a craft brewery is represented by its independence from other alcohol industry members. Even in the presence of a great heterogeneity of the size of craft breweries in various countries, their number in the world is around 17,000. Craft beers are often not filtered or not pasteurized and, for these reasons, they are beverages rich in health compounds but have a reduced shelf life. As in the case of larger breweries, the environmental impact of craft breweries is mainly represented by water consumption and production of liquid and solid wastes. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2021;20:1829–1856.
Effects of Different Sweeteners on Wheat Starch Gelatinization and Cookie Baking
A variety of sucrose replacers (SRs) are increasing in popularity for reducing sucrose usage in low-moisture baked goods (cookies, biscuits, etc.). The goal of this study was to link SR physicochemical properties to their observed effects on starch thermal properties, including results from differential scanning calorimetry, rapid viscoanalysis, particle size analysis, and model wire‐cut cookie baking performance. The 12 SRs examined in this study were Truvia, Splenda, Swerve, coconut palm sugar, monk fruit, erythritol, Benefiber, Miralax, blue agave syrup, yacon syrup, Sukrín Fiber Syrup Gold, and date syrup. The onset gelatinization temperature (Tgel) of wheat starch increased significantly as sucrose and SR concentration increased (0 to 60% w/w), with significant variations in Tgel found between different sweetener types at the same concentration. Generally, as solution concentration increased, the larger SRs decreased paste viscosity (peak and final), decreased granule swelling, and increased Tgel compared with the control (water). The smaller SRs increased both paste viscosity (peak and final) and granule swelling, unlike the larger SRs, and did not increase Tgel as much as larger SRs. The SRs with similar performance to sucrose in model cookie baking and effects on starch properties were yacon, Sukrín, date syrups, and coconut palm sugar. The results linking sweetener physicochemical properties to their effects on starch gelatinization, pasting, and swelling can be used to guide reformulation strategies for potentially reducing sugar and/or increasing fiber content in foods. Journal of Food Science. 2021;86:687–698.
Food Flavoring Prepared with a Lemon Byproduct
Food loss/food waste totals a trillion dollars, and recent research shows minimal effort to redirect food waste/loss to improve the agri‐food industry. Lemon peels are a solid byproduct generated during lemon processing and are frequently discarded as agricultural waste. In this research, we developed a value‐added flavoring gel to use in food preparation, using lemon peels as the primary ingredient. The study evaluated opaque iota carrageenan as an effective thickening agent, with a 0.1% antioxidant as the most effective formulation for this product. The investigators created a small scale‐up of three batches of varying size using thermal processing and the hot‐fill‐hold method. The resulting final product was analyzed for yield, pH, texture, and color. The findings of this study showed that lemon gel was thermally stable, safe, and high quality. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation. Published March 26, 2021; doi: 10.111/jfpp.15462.