The hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) food safety system was developed by the Pillsbury Company, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories in the late 1960s to develop foods for the space program.
First presented by Pillsbury at the 1971 National Conference on Food Protection, the HACCP system initially consisted of procedures designed for three purposes:
- • identification and assessment of hazards associated with the growing, harvesting, processing-manufacturing, marketing, preparation, and use of a given raw material or food product;
- • determination of critical control points (CCPs) at which identified hazards could be controlled; and
- • establishment of procedures to monitor the CCPs.
These procedures were used, in part, by the low-acid canned food (LACF) industry in the development of good manufacturing practices to address Clostridium botulinum concerns in the early 1970s and, in 1973, by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to promulgate LACF regulations, which are contained in 21 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 113.
HACCP has gained international status as the premier food safety system in the European Union, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, as well as other countries, and it serves as the foundation of the World Health Organization’s Codex Alimentarius Commission’s General Principles of Food Hygiene.