Pulse Flour Characteristics from a Wheat Flour Miller’s Perspective
Pulses (grain legumes) are of interest to product formulators as they seek to exploit their fiber‐and protein‐rich reputation in developing nutritionally attractive new products, particularly in the bakery, gluten‐free, snack, pasta, and noodle categories. The processing of pulses into consistent high‐quality ingredients starts with a well‐defined and controlled milling process. However, in contrast to the extensive body of knowledge on wheat flour milling, the peer‐reviewed literature on pulse flour milling is not as well defined, except for the dehulling process. This review examines information on milling of leguminous commodities such as chickpea (kabuli and desi), lentil (green and red), pea, and bean (adzuki, black, cowpea, kidney, navy, pinto, and mung) from the perspective of a wheat miller to explore the extent to which pulse milling studies addressed the objectives of wheat flour milling. These objectives are to reduce particle size, separate components (to improve value and/or functionality), and affect mechanochemical transformations. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume 18, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 775-797. Read full journal article here.
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Lactic Acid Fermentation of Edible Mushrooms
Various raw materials are subjected to lactic acid fermentation (vegetable and animal origin), which yields food products with high nutritional and dietary value. In many regions of the world, the process of lactic fermentation is also traditionally used to preserve fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms. Mushrooms are appreciated for their organoleptic qualities as well as their bioactive substances that exhibit healing and health‐promoting properties. This article reviews the literature related to the use of lactic fermentation in the process of mushroom preservation. Particular attention is paid to the aspects of the technological process and its impact on the quality and suitability of the final products. Moreover, research results concerning the influence of lactic fermentation on chemical and physical changes in fruiting bodies of edible fungi are also discussed. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume 18, Issue 3, May 2019, Pages 655-669. Read full journal article here.
The Influence of Berry Perforation on Grape Drying Kinetics and Total Phenolic Compounds
Drying is one of the traditional methods used for the conservation of fruits. In recent years, different methods have developed to obtain higher quality products. Chamber‐drying methods with hot air at controlled temperature are reliable and easy to use. This article explains how the effect of piercing the structure of grape berries on their drying time was studied experimentally during convective drying within a temperature range of 30-50°C. Experimental moisture loss results were fitted to different mathematical models, evaluated for goodness of fit by comparing their respective R2, χ2, and root mean square error. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Volume 99, Issue 9, July 2019, Pages 4260-4266. Read full journal article here.
Brazilian Coffee Blends: Determination of the Sensory Attributes Elicited in Professional Coffee Cupping
The diversity of compounds and variations in the aroma and flavor of ground and roasted coffee makes the sensory evaluation by the “cupping test” a complex task. A total of 217 commercial coffee samples classified as different beverage types and with different roast degrees were evaluated by official cuppers in the “cupping test.” The responses for sensory attributes were used to verify the correlation to the near‐infrared (NIR) spectra. Chemometric models based on partial least squares were built for the powder fragrance, drink aroma, acidity, bitterness, flavor, body, astringency, residual flavor, and overall quality. Linearity, residual prediction deviation, sensitivity, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection, and quantification were evaluated. All sensory attributes were predicted with adequate values according to the parameters of merit. The proposed method, when compared to the “cupping test,” is an alternative to determining coffee sensory attributes. The results showed that the use of NIR associated with chemometrics is efficient and recommended for predicting sensorial attributes of coffee by means of the direct analysis of roasted and ground samples, and without any additional preparation, making it a promising tool for the coffee industry. Journal of Food Science, Volume 84, Issue 6, June 2019, Pages 1247-1255. Read full journal article here.