Hyperspectral imaging (HSI), a rapid, nondestructive, and chemical-free method, is emerging as a powerful analytical tool for product inspection by simultaneously offering spatial information and spectral signals from one object. This paper focuses on recent advances and applications of HSI in detecting, classifying, and visualizing quality and safety attributes of fruits and vegetables. First, the basic principles and major instrumental components of HSI are presented. Commonly used methods for image processing, spectral pretreatment, and modeling are summarized. Morphological calibrations that are essential for non-flat objects as well as feature wavebands extraction for model simplification are provided. Second, in spite of the physical and visual attributes, applications from the last decade are reviewed specifically categorized into textural characteristics inspection, biochemical components detection, and safety features assessment. Finally, technical challenges and future trends of HSI are discussed. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Volume 14, Issue 2, pages 176–188, March 2015.