Use the right technique. Swabbing of hard-to-clean spots on the processing lines (nooks and crannies) is important. Multiple swabs should be taken, especially in the initial stages of cleaning validation on a processing line to identify the spots that are hardest to clean. Those spots can then become the focus of subsequent cleaning validations and verifications. Allergen cleaning protocol effectiveness should be re-validated periodically or whenever anything changes (product formulation, equipment matrix, processing conditions, etc.). The frequency of re-validation is not fixed and is dependent upon the frequency of changeovers. When using the recommended environmental swabs, the swabbing technique can vary without much effect on the observations. Swabs and surfaces can be either wet or dry.
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