In-Storage Interventions to Control Foodborne Pathogens on Fresh Produce
Although tremendous efforts have been made to ensure fresh produce safety, various foodborne outbreaks and recalls occur annually. Most of the current intervention strategies are evaluated within a short timeframe (less than one hour), leaving the behavior of the remaining pathogens unknown during subsequent storages. This review summarizes outbreak and recall surveillance data from 2009 to 2018, obtained from government agencies in the United States, to identify major safety concerns associated with fresh produce, discusses the post-harvest handling of fresh produce and the limitations of current antimicrobial interventions, and reviews intervention strategies that have the potential to be applied in each storage stage at the commercial scale. One long-term (up to 12 months) pre-packing storage (apples, pears, citrus among others) and three short-term (up to 3 months) post-packing storages were identified. During the pre-packing storage, continuous application of gaseous ozone at low doses is a feasible option. Proper concentration, adequate circulation, and excess gas destruction and ventilation systems are essential to commercial application. At the post-packing storage stages, continuous inhibition can be achieved through controlled release of gaseous chlorine dioxide in packaging, antimicrobial edible coatings, and biocontrol agents. During commercialization, factors that need to be taken into consideration include physicochemical properties of antimicrobials, impacts on fresh produce quality and sensory attributes, recontamination and cross-contamination, cost, and feasibility of large-scale production. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Published online ahead of print on June 30, 2021. DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.12786.
Cold Plasma as an Emerging Nonthermal Technology for Milk
Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is under wide evaluation for the preservation of highly perishable foods, including milk and milk products. Cold plasma (CP) techniques have been promoted as a novel nonthermal technology for the preservation of milk and milk products. Apart from maintaining the nutritive value, CP also inactivates microorganisms without any chances of developing resistance. CP was also found to deactivate enzymes that are responsible for browning (color change) reactions and off-flavor generation. This review describes the action of CP and its effect on the nutritional quality of milk and milk products. International Journal of Dairy Technology. Published March 23, 2021. doi: 10.1111/1471-0307.12771.
Malting Barley Improvement for Craft Brewers
American craft brewers are targeting barley malt as a novel source of flavor and as a means of differentiation. However, fundamental tools have only recently emerged to aid barley breeders in supporting this effort, such as the hot steep malt sensory method, a wort preparation method recently approved by the American Society of Brewing Chemists for evaluation of extractable malt flavor. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether insights into beer liking and sensory attributes can be gained through hot steep malt sensory using an untrained panel of craft beer consumers. The authors evaluated consumer acceptance of hot steep and beer samples of different barley genotypes using a nine-point hedonic scale, check-all-that-apply (CATA), and open comment during separate sensory panels. Beers brewed with Washington State University breeding lines, selected for all-malt craft brewing, generally had higher consumer acceptance than the industry-standard control variety. Genotype had a significant influence on the consumer acceptance of beer aroma, appearance, taste/flavor, sweetness, and overall liking, but only on hot steep appearance. Significant differences between genotypes were found for 18% (fruity and other) and 46% (chemical, citrus, earthy, fruity, stale, and sweet aromatic) of CATA attributes for the hot steep and beer panels, respectively. Hot steep and beer liking and sensory attributes had low correlation coefficients. This study demonstrates that untrained craft beer consumers can better differentiate among genotypes using beers than hot steep samples. Journal of Food Science. Published online ahead of print on June 30, 2021. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.15786.