In the 13th century, the Magna Carta (literally “great paper”) changed the course of history, introducing the idea of constitutional rights for all citizens. In the 21st century, a carta no less magna—this one issued by retail giant Wal-Mart—is having an equally transformative effect on the food industry around the world, particularly in the United States. In 2008, in a letter to food suppliers and a press release to the national media, Wal-Mart became the first nationwide U.S. grocer to adopt Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) standards.
Explore this issueDecember/January 2009
No reading between the lines is necessary. The message is clear: Food producers must adhere to the GFSI framework by the end of 2009 or stop doing business with the nation’s largest supermarket.
Wal-Mart has sent a wave through the entire industry, not just among suppliers who directly service the company. Food is a strategic growth engine for Wal-Mart and its impact on the grocery supply chain is immense. According to author Paul Roberts in his new book The End of Food, Wal-Mart takes in 21 cents of every food dollar spent in the United States.
We’d hasten to add that in its historic role as market maker, Wal-Mart’s embrace of GFSI will very likely be followed by other major brands with supersized market clout that are watching and preparing to follow suit. The adoption of GFSI safety standards can’t be far away as everyone scrambles for the other 79 cents of America’s food dollar.
Benefits of Standards
The movement toward a more repeatable set of best practices, accepted across the industry and regulated by independent third parties, is a good thing. For years, suppliers have been dealing with disparate second-party auditing programs, choosing them primarily based on the preferences of their biggest customers. While individual plants and companies have achieved tactical levels of quality control using these methods, a lack of longitudinal uniformity has left the food supply ecosystem vulnerable to inconsistent protection. And that puts consumer safety—and your business—at risk.
In the United States, food safety is ostensibly regulated by the states, with general but nonbinding guidance from the United States Department of Agriculture and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The closest thing to a national standard is the FDA Food Code (http://www.foodsafety.gov/ ~dms/foodcode.html), which has been adopted—though not uniformly—by 48 states, with inspections performed by local auditors who themselves are not certified or regulated.
The decentralized nature of the system, and the daily pressures that suppliers face to stay in the good graces of their customers, has given rise to at least a dozen private second-party auditing schemes used by various suppliers and manufacturers. The same scenario has played out in Europe over the past 10 years, where food suppliers in the European Union grappled with upwards of 50 different auditing schemes before coalescing around the GFSI standards.