Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine have discovered that exposure during pregnancy to Bisphenol A (BPA), a common component of plastics, causes permanent abnormalities in the uterus of offspring, including altered DNA. The findings were reported in the March issue of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Journal.
Led by Hugh S. Taylor, MD, a professor in the department of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive sciences at Yale, the study is the first to show that BPA exposure permanently affects sensitivity to estrogen, according to a statement released by the university. BPA is a common building block in the production of many epoxy resins and plastics, including polycarbonate plastic.
Dr. Taylor and his team used two groups of mice, one exposed to BPA as fetuses during pregnancy and another exposed to a placebo. They examined gene expression and the amount of DNA modification in the uterus. They found that the mice exposed to BPA as fetuses had an exaggerated response to estrogens as adults, long after the exposure to BPA.
The genes were permanently programmed to respond excessively to estrogen.
“The DNA in the uterus was modified by loss of methyl groups so that it responded abnormally in adulthood,” said Dr. Taylor. “The gene expression was permanently epigenetically altered, and the uterus became hyper-responsive to estrogens.”
Dr. Taylor said exposure to BPA as a fetus is carried throughout adulthood.
“What our mothers were exposed to in pregnancy may influence the rest of our lives. We need to better identify the effect of environmental contaminants on not just crude measures such as birth defects, but also their effect in causing more subtle developmental errors.” ■